The stories at the end of the Grammar are intended as supple- mentary Exercises.
The best plan would be first to learn the Italian portion by heart, and afterwards to translate the English as an additional exercise.
Here are Simpson's two examples of "Category A" narration with positive shading (condensed), from Jane Eyre and Three Men in a Boat: It is vain to say human beings ought to be satisfied with tranquillity: they must have action, and they will make it if they cannot find it....
Women are supposed to be very calm generally: but women feel just as men feel; they need exercise for their faculties...
He can also vary the fictional point of view, sometimes claiming authorial omniscience, sometimes giving us one character's version of events, sometimes that of another..., if events are recorded through the words or thoughts of a character, they are by that fact limited to what that character could reasonably be expected to know or infer.
Discoursal point of view, that is, implies a parallel restriction of fictional point of view.
You KNOW if they were making regular movies in Hollywood by then SOMEBODY was shooting fuck flicks....
Gli avi irlandesi di Cobain erano dei calzolai, il cui cognome in origine era Cobane e che nel 1875 migrarono dal villaggio nord irlandese di Inishatieve nella contea di Tyrone, per stabilirsi dapprima a Cornwall in Canada e poi nello Stato di Washington negli Stati Uniti d'America.
(174-75) If the narration is entrusted to an external narrator, therefore, the story can even be told from "the point of view of an animal, or of a man on the point of death" (Leech and Short 174)--while if the narrator is a character within the story, what he/she can tell will be limited to what he/she sees/knows.
A dozen years after Leech and Short's seminal book, Paul Simpson makes very similar assumptions on the connection between narrating voice and point of view: in his "modal grammar of point of view in narrative fiction" (which describes the combined effects of Leech and Short's "lictional" and "discoursal" points of view), Simpson distinguishes between "Category A" (homodiegetic) and "Category B" (heterodiegetic) narrations, and maintains that only the latter can be filtered through a "reflector." He further distinguishes between three "patterns of modality" (positive, negative, and neutral) which may be exhibited by the narrator/predicated upon the reflector: roughly, a positive shading reflects an epistemically confident and openly evaluative view of the world; a negative shading imbues the narrative with a general tone of uncertainty ("it seemed to me/him," "perhaps he thought I/he was wrong"); while if the general pattern of modality is neutral, "the narrator withholds subjective evaluations and tells the story through categorical assertions alone" (Simpson 60).
One of the questions I hear all the time is how I find things for 75 or 50 cents.
It’s simple: I research the sales each thrift store offers in the area and I shop on those specific days.