Early modern absolutism is believed to have existed across Europe, but largely in the west in states such as Spain, Prussia and Austria.
It is considered to have reached its apogee under the rule of French King Louis XIV from 1643 – 1715, although there are dissenting views – such as Mettam - suggesting that this was more a dream than a reality.
Absolute ages are much different from relative ages. Absolute ages are determined by radiometric methods, such as carbon-14 dating. Radioactive decay is the breakdown of unstable elements into stable elements. But carbon-12 has 6 neutrons and carbon-14 has 8 neutrons. Neutrons in cosmic rays strike nitrogen atoms in the atmosphere. Carbon in the atmosphere combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide.
To understand this process, recall that the atoms of all elements contain the particles protons, neutrons, and electrons. Plants take in carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. Like other unstable isotopes, carbon-14 breaks down, or decays.
NOT carbon-14 dating: at least not for the vast vast vast majority of fossils.
At just 5,730 years, the half-life of carbon-14 is far too short to calculate ages in the millions or billions of years.
The last 60 thousand years is only about 0.0017% of 3.5 billion years.
Relative age allows scientists to know whether something is older or younger than something else, while absolute age means that scientists know the exact number in years that have passed since the object was created.
Relative age will require the comparison of two or more objects, whereas absolute age does not.
For example, if an area used for trash has modern refuse in it such as CDs and computers, and the layer underneath has cans made of tin, then it is safe to say the layer of tin cans have a greater relative age than the layer with modern refuse.
However, this does not say anything about the absolute age of the layers.